Arthroplasty is the surgical replacement of arthritic or destructive or necrotic joint or joint surface with prosthesis. Arthroscopic techniques have found wide applicability in both large and small joints of the body. The hip is encased in a dense soft tissue envelope that makes the introduction of arthroscopic instruments challenging.
During hip replacement, an orthopaedic surgeon removes the damaged sections of hip joint and replaces them with parts usually constructed of metal and very hard plastic. This artificial joint (prosthesis) helps reduce pain and improve function.
Loose bodies- Removal of loose bodies represents the clearest indication for hip arthroscopy. The diagnosis is usually evident with currently available imaging techniques including arthrography or arthro-CT scan. Once diagnosed, the importance of loose body removal has been well documented. Arthrotomy for debridement carries greater associated morbidity than hip arthroscopy
Labral tears- Labral tears are more elusive to diagnose than loose bodies. Successful arthroscopic debridement of symptomatic labral tears can produce very gratifying results.
Degenerative disease- Arthroscopic debridement has a limited role in the management of select patients with degenerative disease. It is a palliative and temporizing procedure that may potentially delay the subsequent need for total hip arthroplasty.
Chondral injuries- Similar to labral lesions, the diagnosis of isolated chondral injuries may be elusive. However, when recognized, these injuries represent an excellent indication for arthroscopic management. Arthroscopy has also found a role in select synovial disease and joint sepsis.
Synovial disease- Arthroscopy has also found a role in select synovial disease and joint sepsis. Joint sepsis- Arthroscopy is also helpful for the diagnosis of infectious arthritis, and is usually caused by bacteria, or fungus.
Avascular necrosis- Avascular necrosis is the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply. Avascular necrosis can lead to tiny breaks in the bone and the bone’s eventual collapse is detected by Arthroscopy.
Ruptured ligamentum teres- A ligamentum teres rupture is a severe sprain of the ligament that connects the ball of the hip joint (femoral head) to the hip socket (acetabulum). This type of sprain is usually detected by Arthroscopy.
Unresolved hip pain- Arthroscopy has also been reported for select cases of unresolved hip pain.